Stake and depth of foundation
- Use two lines of staking axes and take measurements from them, they have to be orthogonal.
- It is very important to start well with the measures to build a house.
- Arrange the trestles to place the rope where we will place the width of the shoe.
It is the placement of the iron and its subsequent casting with concrete, generally for a small house is used iron of 10 mm and stirrups of 6 mm (previously calculated by a civil engineer), construction iron (corrugated rod) not smooth.
Leave the iron completely insulated from the ground and soaked in the separated concrete 4 cm from the ground. Do not get past the water when making the concrete, it loses a lot of resistance by throwing a lot of water, although it is better to move it, but its use with lots of water is not recommended.
It is to find the level of the lower floor, to take the level that will take the whole house and put it in a fixed place to build it from there for all sides, put it on a benchmark (be it a pole or a neighbor’s wall). Take approximately 15 cm upwards from the evacuation level of rainwater in the streets, to take the lower level of the floor.
Before filling the ground to let the level of sub floor pass all the pipes first. Leave the pipes up 40 cm above the subfloor. Then fill with inert soil (select material) 10 cm below the sub floor level, to proceed to finish the floor.
Before filling the earth insulate the wall with water-repellent so that the moisture of the earth does not permeate the wall, you can also use a nylon of 100 microns before putting the floor so that it does not penetrate the humidity, this is very important to the hour To build a house and that many do not take into account.
It is a folder of leveling with 2 cm of thickness, which will be placed on the floor.
They are layers whose main function is to isolate the soil moisture with the house, water as we all know it enters by osmosis in all the walls and goes up little by little until they damage them. A chemical called water-repellent is used to form an impermeable and continuous film.
To do this is made the mixture of cement, sand and a chemical called water-repellent. This water repellent makes a film as if it were a glass that does not make the humidity pass. Two layers are used, one below the brick that goes after the floor and the other at the top of the brick.
Check that the walls are plumb (totally vertical), any inconvenience in this step can be arranged in a simple way, to know what type of bricks to use you can have a look at this article: Types of bricks for construction where the advantages are detailed And disadvantages of hollow or solid bricks.
Chained (also called upper hearth)
It is a beam that is placed around the wall at the top of the windows and whose function is to evenly distribute the loads that will receive from the ceiling and all the walls that will go up.
Leave the holes in the entire pipe so you do not have to prick afterwards and do not cut the iron that is left behind. Usually the height of the chained is 13 times the thickness of the wall, this is an approximation. An example: a wall of 20 cm multiplied by 13 times will be talking about 2.60 m in height, usually done at 2.40 m which has been a comfortable height for the inhabitants of the house.
The longitudinal iron that can be of 8 mm that is most usual in the use of small houses, with rings or stirrups of 4 mm and their separation is never greater than its height, every 15 cm approximately the stirrups can be placed.
To prevent water from entering the inside, a sheet of metal is placed in the wall which is 25cm to 30cm depending on the slope of the ceiling. Before placing the sheet, the joints can be sealed with expanded polyurethane and then placed.
For the roof structure we can use galvanized iron to replace the wood that is typically used. This structure is covered at the end with a ceiling. The plates are screwed and gutters are used for the roof drain Above the water outlet is shown by the channel that profile is set at 26 cm to give space to enter there a channel of 25 cm.
The glass wool is put with the paper down, the paper is the one that serves as vapor barrier. Above is the glass wool supported by the wires so that they do not deform and do not bend too much.
Plasters and installations
Before making a plaster what is done first are these vertical belts, what these belts do is to determine the lines of the plaster, in that line will finish the plaster, this serves to give the line to the bricklayer so that you can define the plaster for Get the perfect line. The plaster is finished after the electrician and plumber passes for perfect polishing.
The function of the exterior plaster is to waterproof all the walls, so when it rains the water can not penetrate the walls of the house.
It is made in the same way with cement, water, sand and a water repellent is placed in the mixture to make it totally impermeable. Then the fine plaster 3-5 mm thick.
Folder, fine plaster and ceiling functions of a folder
Produce a waterproof mantle, because under subfloor could transmit moisture from the floor despite having used a nylon under the subfloor, this is in case it breaks the nylon somewhere and produces a source of moisture.
- Leave 1 cm below the threshold of the entrance door to be able to place the floor and leave it perfectly level.
- Leveling 1 cm below the door.
- The folder is attached with the second one that we did previously on the walls.
- Check the thin plaster on the where it is weakest.
- Ceiling finish with plasterboard.
Using aluminum carpentry, do not use the cheapest carpentry, is a common mistake. Seal perfectly with special silicone
This means all the small details that make the difference, touches and repairs of small imperfections, moldings, electrical appliances, paint, finishes, coatings, floors, cranks, faucets, electrical wiring and installation, screws, interior carpentry, counters, toilets.